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法学汇丨民法典对公益诉讼的实体法支持与价值指引

时间: 2019-06-19 来源:秒速飞艇_秒速飞艇下载【送礼金】 访问量:

 公益诉讼作为一项尚处于改革发展中的诉讼制度,立法不完善一直是一个突出问题,民法典为解决公益诉讼实体法依据不足的问题迈出了坚实的步伐。

一、关于民法典与公益诉讼关系的

基本认识

minfadianshidiaozhengpingdengzhutizhijianrenshenguanxihecaichanguanxidejibenfalv,zhuyaoguanzhutedingminshizhutideminshiquanli。ergongyisusongzeshiweileweihugonggongliyiershezhidesusongzhidu,guanzhudeshibutedingzhutidegonggongliyi。liangzhesuodiaozhengbaohudequanlixingzhihelifazhiqushidabuxiangtongde,keyishuojuyouyidingdehubuguanxi,yinci,minfadiandeguifanbingbuyidingkeyizhijieshiyongyugongyisusong,gengwufachongfenmanzugongyisusongduishitiguifandexuqiu,zheishiduiminfadianyugongyisusongguanxidejibenrenshi。

秒速飞艇danminshizhutideminshiquanliyugonggongliyibingbushijieranduilide,zaiyouxieqingkuangxia,shihuxiangyunhande;zaiyouxietiaojianxia,keyihuxiangzhuanhua;zaiyouxietiaojianxia,haikeyichengxianweihuxiangzhiyuehuoxianjiedengguanxi。yinci,minfadianguanyuminshizhutiminshiquanlijiminshizerendeguifanhennanyugonggongliyi、gongyisusongjieranqufenkai。tongshi,minfadianhegongyisusongdoushijiyutuijinguojiazhilitixihezhilinenglixiandaihua,zengjinrenminfuzhi、weihuzuiguangdarenminqunzhonggenbenliyi,juyouxiangtongzhengzhi、jingji、shehui、wenhuazhiduyushijianjichuheshidaibeijing,youzhexiangtongdejiazhizhuiqiu,zaigongyisusongguifantixibuzudeqingkuangxia,guanchuanminfadiandelifajingshen、zhidaosixiang、yuanzehejiazhitixideng,nenggouweigongyisusongtigongmingque、guifandejiazhizhiyin。

二、民法典为已经开展的

公益诉讼实践补强了实体法依据

“绿色原则”和生态环境损害赔偿的规范体系丰富了环境领域公益诉讼实体法依据。生态环境是公益诉讼的主要领域,就检察公益诉讼而言,生态环境和资源保护领域的案件始终占到一半以上,党的十九届四中全会也提出“完善生态环境公益诉讼制度”的要求。生态环境规范是民法典编纂备受关注的亮点和特色。

秒速飞艇▶ zongzebianjiang“youliyujieyueziyuan、baohushengtaihuanjing”de“lvseyuanze”queliweiminfadejibenyuanze(di9tiao),tuxianletadezhongyaoxinghezonglingyiyi。

秒速飞艇▶ jutiguizezhongyezuoleyixilieanpai,ruhetongbianzhongguidingzailvxinghetongguochengzhongyingdangbimianlangfeiziyuan、wuranhuanjinghepohuaishengtai(di509tiaodisankuan)。qinquanzerenbianzengjiaguidingleshengtaihuanjingsunhaidechengfaxingpeichangzhidu,tebieshiguanyushengtaihuanjingsunhaidexiufuzerenhepeichangguizedexiangguanguiding(di1232tiao、di1234tiao、di1235tiao),weigongyisusongtigonglezhijiedefalvyiju。ruquedingxiufuhepeichangzerendeqingqiuquanzhutiweiguojiaguidingdejiguanhuozhefalvguidingdezuzhi,nenggouxiufude,yaoqiuqinquanrenzaiheliqixianneichengdanxiufuzeren;zaiqixianneiweixiufude,keyizixinghuozheweituotarenjinxingxiufu,youqinquanrenfudanxiangyingfeiyong;guanyuzaochengshengtaihuanjingsunhaidepeichangfanwei,baokuogongnengsangshihuogongnengsunhaizaochengdesunshi、diaochapinggujiandingfeiyong、qingchuwuran、xiufushengtaihuanjingfeiyongyijizhisundehelifeiyong,kuodalepeichangfanwei,jiejuelegongyisusongshijianzhongdezhengyiwenti。

人格权的规范体系和侵害英烈名誉权的责任规范丰富了英烈名誉保护公益诉讼实体法依据。

▶ minfadianzongzebianjiang“hongyangshehuizhuyihexinjiazhiguan”zengjiaweiyixiangzhongyaodelifamude,mingqueguidingleqinhaiyingxionglieshidengdexingming、xiaoxiang、mingyu、rongyu,sunhaishehuigonggongliyide,yingdangchengdanminshizeren(di185tiao)。

▶ rengequanbianjutijiedinglexingmingquan(di1012tiao)、xiaoxiangquan(di1018tiao)、mingyuquan(di1024tiao)herongyuquan(di1031tiao),bingwanshanlexiaoxiangquanhelishiyongguize(di1020tiao)hemingyuquanbaohuyuxinwenbaodao、yulunjiandudeguize(di1025tiao、1026tiao)。

秒速飞艇zheiyixilieguidingduiyujianchagongyisusongshijianzhongruhezhunquebawoxingweirenshifouqinhaiyingliequanli、shifousunhaigonggongliyi,tigonglegengquanmiandeshitifayiju。

三、民法典为拓展公益诉讼案件范围

和深化制度探索提供了实体法支持

隐私权和个人信息保护的规范体系为拓展公益诉讼案件范围提供了实体法支持。民法典人格权编对隐私进行了界定(第1032条),明确个人信息中的私密信息适用隐私权的保护规定(第1034条)。为平衡保护个人信息与满足信息收集、大数据利用之间的关系,民法典还初步构建了自然人与信息者之间的权利义务框架(第1036条至第1038条)。近年来,通过网络等手段侵害公民隐私和个人信息的案件频发,受害群体广泛、个体维权困难,已经成为人民群众反响强烈的公益侵害。十九届四中全会提出了“拓展公益诉讼案件范围”的要求,公民个人信息安全就是公益诉讼可以也应该发挥积极作用的一个新领域,民法典为此提供了实体法支持。

惩罚性赔偿规范为食品药品领域公益诉讼的探索提供了实体法支持。民法典规定了三类情形下的惩罚性赔偿制度,即故意侵害他人知识产权,情节严重的(第1185条);明知产品缺陷仍然生产、销售,或未有效采取停止销售、警示、召回等补救措施,造成严重后果的(第1207条);违反法律规定故意污染环境、破坏生态造成严重后果的(第1232条)。《中共中央 国务院关于深化改革加强食品安全工作的意见》等中央文件,对在食品安全领域民事公益诉讼中探索建立惩罚性赔偿提出了明确要求,民法典的这些规定对检察机关和人民法院探索民事公益诉讼惩罚性赔偿的认定标准、适用范围和赔偿金的管理使用等问题提供了重要思路,值得关注。

四、民法典为检察公益诉讼未来发展

给予了方向和路径指引

关于公共利益的保护。检察公益诉讼制度,是为了弥补侵害公共利益的治理漏洞,有效发挥司法在维护公益方面的效能,推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化。

秒速飞艇minfadianquanwen1260tiao,you11chuzhijiebiaoshule“gonggongliyi”huo“shehuigonggongliyi”,chuyingliebaohutiaokuanwai,haibaokuoweigonggongliyidexuyaoerjinxingdezhengshouzhengyong(di117tiao)、minshizhutibudelanyongminshiquanlisunhaishehuigonggongliyi(di132tiao)、weigonggongliyidezhengshou(di243tiao)、weigonggongliyitiqianshouhuimiaosufeitingyongdishiyongquan(di358tiao)、liyonghetongweihaishehuigonggongliyideguizhi(di534tiao)、jiyugonggongliyidexingmingmingchengxiaoxiangdengdehelishiyongguize(di999tiao)、yurentijiyinpeitaiyouguandeyixuehekeyanhuodongbudesunhaigonggongliyi(di1009tiao)、weigonggongliyishishidexinwenbaodao、yulunjianduyingxiangtarenmingyumianze(di1025tiao)、weiweihugonggongliyihelishishidexinxichulixingweimianze(di1036tiao)deng。

minfazaixingzhishangshuyusifa,diaozhengdeshipingdengzhutizhijianderenshenhecaichanguanxi,congminfadeshijiaoduigonggongliyijinxingdezheixiebiaoda,shijishangjianggonggongliyizuoweiduiminshixingweijinxingkendingxinghuofoudingxingpingjiadepanduanbiaozhun,liqinglegerenminshiquanyiyugonggongliyidejiexian,yeweipinghengxiediaoliangzheguanxitigonglejiejuesilu,weigongyibaohuyuliulezhidukongjian,jichulefangxiangzhiyin,jitongguojutidedanxingfahedanxingfadezhuanmentiaokuanweigonggongliyibaohu、weigongyisusongtigonggengjiamingque、chongfendeshitifayiju。

涉及不特定多数人的救济空白。根据公益诉讼检察职能特点,其职能范围应定位于侵害不特定多数人利益和穷尽现有救济方式仍然存在空白(或缺乏动因)的领域,在民法典的视野下,有不少可持续观察的难点问题。

秒速飞艇biruzhenduigeshitiaokuandekenengqinhai,minfadiansuiranfuyuleminshizhutizhuzhanggaitiaokuan“buchengweihetongdeneirong”(di496tiao)hefeishanyimianzetiaokuanwuxiao(di497tiao)dequanli,danjiyugeshitiaokuandaliangshiyong,qiecunzaipianfuzhang、neirongduo、biaodafuza、nanyulijiedengwenti,jieshougeshitiaokuandeyifang,shishishanghennanyouxiaoxingshizheixiequanli,geshitiaokuangouchengleduijiaoyiguize、duishehuigonggongliyideyanzhongqinhai,youbiyaofahuigongyisusongdezuoyong。minfadianhaiquelile“zuiyouliyubeishouyangrendeyuanze”(di1044tiaodiyikuan),xiangyingde,di1105tiaozengjiale“shouyangpinggu”deguiding,erruhebaozhangpinggubuliuyuxingshiyijiduishouyanghoufuyangzhuangkuangdehuifang、pinggushishejigonggongliyidewenti,yeyougongyisusongfazhandekongjian。

秒速飞艇minfadianhegongyisusongbushiyizhongdanxiang、xianxingdejiandanguanxi,miaosufeitingjiyaozijueyiminfadianweizhidao,youyaozhigenyugongyisusongzishendeshijianjichuhelilunluojizhishang,yuminfadianxingchengliangxinghudong,tansuowanshangongyibaohudezhongguofangan。


来源:秒速飞艇_秒速飞艇下载【送礼金】

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